Relational Calculus

  • Relational calculus is a non-procedural query language. In the non-procedural query language, the user is concerned with the details of how to obtain the end results.
  • The relational calculus tells what to do but never explains how to do.

Types of Relational calculus:

DBMS Relational Calculus

1. Tuple Relational Calculus (TRC)

  • The tuple relational calculus is specified to select the tuples in a relation. In TRC, filtering variable uses the tuples of a relation.
  • The result of the relation can have one or more tuples.



T is the resulting tuples

P(T) is the condition used to fetch T.

For example:

OUTPUT: This query selects the tuples from the AUTHOR relation. It returns a tuple with 'name' from Author who has written an article on 'database'.

TRC (tuple relation calculus) can be quantified. In TRC, we can use Existential (∃) and Universal Quantifiers (∀).

For example:

Output: This query will yield the same result as the previous one.

2. Domain Relational Calculus (DRC)

  • The second form of relation is known as Domain relational calculus. In domain relational calculus, filtering variable uses the domain of attributes.
  • Domain relational calculus uses the same operators as tuple calculus. It uses logical connectives ∧ (and), ∨ (or) and ┓ (not).
  • It uses Existential (∃) and Universal Quantifiers (∀) to bind the variable.



a1, a2 are attributes
P stands for formula built by inner attributes

For example:

Output: This query will yield the article, page, and subject from the relational w3cschoool, where the subject is a database.

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Relational Calculus